CBD is a substance belonging to the family of cannabidiol, cannabinoid, which occurs naturally in cannabis plants. The cannabis sativa plant family can be broadly divided into cannabis and hemp. Both contain CBD, but hemp (very useful) contains very low (less than 0.2%) content compared to THC marijuana, the content is farmer in many countries of the world Can be cultivated legally. Therefore, CBD is extracted from the raw material of dried and ground hemp.Depending on the purification step after the initial extraction, different types of extracts can be produced, from full spectrum to wide spectrum to CBD shatter isolates. However, each process is initiated and characterized by choosing this initial extraction method, so let’s take a look at the most common options.
CBD alcohol extraction:
The alcohol used for extraction is usually ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, both of which are commonly used solvents in food manufacturing. The plant material is saturated with it, then the solution containing the extract components is filtered from the mixture and the alcohol is removed by distillation.The resulting so-called crude extract is then further distilled to remove unwanted cannabinoids such as chlorophyll (plant green) or THC and concentrate the desired cannabinoids such as CBD.Alcohol extraction is the most widely used CBD extraction method in the world. This method is cost effective and saves resources because the solvent can be recycled and used for the next extraction. Also, there is no need for overly special equipment.
CBD CO2 extraction:
If you’ve read anything about CBD extraction, you’ve probably come across CO2. This solvent is praised as the cleanest. Normally, CO2 is a gas, but when pressure and temperature are properly adjusted, it can become a so-called “supercritical fluid” used as an extraction medium.The extraction process is basically the same as for alcohol, but requires more advanced settings to handle the high pressure due to the use of liquid CO2. On the plus side, increasing the adjustment points eliminates unwanted components from the beginning and allows the solvent (CO2) to easily evaporate at the end of the process without leaving a trace on the product.Although CO2 extraction has become more popular in recent years, the reason why it cannot lead the previous alcohol extraction is thought to be the high operating costs and the special equipment required.
CBD oil extraction:
Extraction of cannabinoids with vegetable oil is probably the longest method in history and therefore deserves to be mentioned here. The oil is “injected” with the raw material of hemp, and the oil-soluble components are slowly released, much like brewing tea.The main drawback is that the oil cannot be easily removed. In other words, the cannabinoid concentration of the resulting product is relatively low, and unnecessary components such as THC cannot be selectively removed. Vegetable oils are also relatively expensive and ineffective solvents compared to the aforementioned CO2 or alcohol.
CBD butane extraction:
Like ethanol and CO2, butane can be used as an effective solvent for cannabinoids as it passes over ground, dry plant material. The first attraction is its high volatility. This allows you to remove all traces of this solvent with a little heat or a small vacuum. However, due to its high explosiveness and flammability, it is difficult to use this solvent under safe working conditions. Moreover, it is not the preferred solvent for use in foods.
The resulting extract is at terpene and natural THC levels and is usually not further purified.
Extraction of CBD resin:
This method produces a product very similar to butane extraction, but without the use of any solvent. Instead, use high pressure and heat to get the resin extract directly from the plant material.Click here. The higher the pressure that can be applied, the less heat needs to be used and the more valuable the terpene remains.